By Navin G. Ashar
This e-book provides a whole, in-depth research for at the effect of liquid sulfur dioxide and liquid sulfur trioxide to hold out advanced and tough sulfonations, in addition to manufacture of sulfuric acid with a CAPEX requirement of under part, a space requirement lower than one-third, and no emission of sulfur dioxide. The techniques defined during this quantity represents an cutting edge procedure proper to the present production techniques of sulfuric acid, sulfamic acid, para toluene sulfonic acid and different sulfonated product.
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Extra resources for Advances in Sulphonation Techniques: Liquid Sulphur Dioxide as a Solvent of Sulphur Trioxide (SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology)
It is then further cooled in separate lean 26 3 Manufacture of Sulphonating Agents … oleum coolers before putting it back into the oleum tower for fortiﬁcation by plant gases. In a twin-tower system, the ﬁrst oleum tower operates at 30–35 % oleum strength while the second oleum tower, which is in series with the ﬁrst one, operates at 21–24 % for further absorption of SO3 (from the exit gases of the ﬁrst oleum tower). 1 Manufacture of Liquid Sulphur Dioxide The conventional method of producing sulphur dioxide is by combustion of sulphur followed by absorption-desorption, drying and cryogenic condensation.
1007/978-3-319-22641-5_4 27 28 4 Manufacture of Liquid Sulphur Dioxide Fig. 2 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Consideration of the NEAT’s Process It is interesting to note that a highly exothermic nature of sulphur oxidation in a furnace at about 1000 °C can be carried out at reasonably low temperatures 50– 110 °C in a pressurised reactor. This is possible by reaction. SðLiqÞ þ 2 SO3 ðLiqÞ ! 3SO2 ðGasÞ DH ¼ À74:3 KCal=g mole DF ¼ À36:71 KCal=g mole Since the free energy change is large and negative, the reaction is almost instantaneous.
Economically both of the above technologies have inherent handicap. The capital cost per ton of liquid SO2 in the above technologies will be at least 2–3 times higher than the capital cost required for the process recommended in this chapter. As regards raw material and utilities, in both processes one third cost is common by using sulphur. 5 % Sulphuric Acid, which may have low resale value because of its colour, and that it can only be used in the manufacture of Phosphatic fertilisers. Whereas in the process recommended in this chapter, the liquid SO3 will be completely reacted, and only occasionally the reactor have to be drained for removal of unreacted impurities in the sulphur.