By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
Major development has happened over the last few years in machine applied sciences and those are surveyed during this new quantity. incorporated are Si/(Si-Ge) heterojunctions for high-speed built-in circuits, Schottky-barrier arrays in Si and Si-Ge alloys for infrared imaging, III-V quantum-well detector buildings operated within the heterodyne mode for high-data-rate communications, and III-V heterostructures and quantum-wells for infrared emissions.
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Additional info for Advances in Research and Development, Volume 23: Modeling of Film Deposition for Microelectronic Applications (Thin Films) (Vol. 23)
Chadi (61) denotes the step with the dimers on the upper terrace oriented normal to the step edge as the S B step (Fig. 7b), and the surface with the dimers oriented parallel to the edge are the SA steps (Fig. 7a). The energy per unit length of the SB steps is higher than the SA steps. Thus the clean surface consists of alternating SA and SB steps, with the SB step edges tending to be rough compared to the SA steps. 5 degrees toward . FIG. 8. 5 degrees toward [I 10]. The orthogonal rows of dimers on allernate steps are clearly visible.
Phys. Rev. ) hydride ([3~) peak observed during thermal desorption measurements. This surface consists of dimer rows with one hydrogen atom terminating each dangling bond. Thus in the ideal case there are no reactive surface sites and surface reactions cannot take place. These experiments show that at temperatures near those used for growth, only the monohydride species is present. Thus desorption from the monohydride is of dominant importance in determining growth rates. It might be expected that the surface desorption reaction would be 2Sill* ---* 2Si* + H, (8) GexSil.
From A. J. Pidduck, D. J. Robbins, A. G. Cullis, W. Y. Leong, and A. M. ) GexSi~_x EPITAXIAL LAYER GROWTH AND APPLICATION TO INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 21 given germanium composition and thickness, there is an upper limit on growth temperature above which undulation formation becomes severe. It is possible to delay the onset of undulation formation by use of a surfactant, which decreases the surface diffusivity (74). The morphology of the undulated surface is complex (75), showing orthogonally oriented domains of ridges along < 1 1 0 > directions.