By R. Cheung, J. Klein, K. Tsubouchi, M. Murakami, N. Kobayashi
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Additional resources for Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for Ulsi Applications in 1997
The component can be scrapped, it can be given a concession or it can be repaired. A concession is a situation where a defect is deemed not to have too detrimental an effect on the component and the client agrees in writing that the defect can remain in place. In some cases the concession conditions may mean a limitation is placed on the component service conditions and/or a repair is required at a more convenient time. A repair can in some cases require a different welding process, different consumables or some other change to the original procedure to be used.
This ability to be welded successfully depends on many factors including the type and composition of the material, the welding process used and the mechanical properties required. Poor weldability generally involves some type of cracking problem and this is dependent upon factors such as: . residual stress level (from unequal expansion and contraction due to welding); . restraint stress level (from local restraint such as clamps, jigs or ﬁxtures); . presence of a microstructure susceptible to cracking (the base material may have a susceptible microstructure or the HAZ and/or weld metal may form a microstructure susceptible to cracking owing to the welding).
The heat can come from various sources such as an arc, ﬂame, laser beam, electron beam, friction, etc. We will look at the most commonly used arc welding processes in this chapter. 1 shows the equipment used in this process. Fusion is obtained from the heat of an arc formed between a consumable ﬂux-coated electrode and the workpiece. The arc is protected from the atmosphere by a gaseous shroud produced from the melting ﬂux while the weld metal is cleaned of contaminants by the ﬂux, which forms a slag that ﬂoats to the top of the weld (Fig.