By Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo Tsubouchi
The MRS Symposium continuing sequence is an the world over known reference compatible for researchers and practitioners.
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Additional info for Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for ULSI Applications in 1996: Volume 12 (MRS Conference Proceedings)
Training of personnel should provide a thorough knowledge of the elementary statistics of sampling. Specific training should be devoted to the operation concerned with each specific measurement program, including a thorough review of the protocols to be followed. Critical steps should be identified and explained, and any special documentation reviewed. Sample uncertainties, random or systematic, result from the sample or from the sampling operation. Population- related variability has been discussed above.
Farnsworth, Department of Chemistry, Brigham Young University Introduction Optical emission spectroscopic methods originated in experiments performed in the mid-1800s, yet they remain some of the most useful and flexible means of performing elemental analysis. Free atoms, when placed in an energetic environment, emit light at a series of narrow wavelength intervals. These intervals, termed emission lines, form a pattern, the emission spectrum, that is, characteristic of the atom producing it. The intensities of the lines are usually proportional to the number of atoms producing them.
Fig. 4 Partial cross section of a plane diffraction grating. α and β are the angles of incidence and diffraction, respectively. d is the groove space. Two types of wavelength-sorting devices are most commonly used for emission spectroscopy. The first, the grating monochromator, is used for single-channel detection of radiation. Figure 5 shows the light path through a Czerny-Turner monochromator, a typical configuration. Light enters the monochromator through the entrance slit and passes to the collimating mirror.